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Frank Lloyd Wright, the Willits House and the Traditional Japanese Architecture

The Willits House is a project made by Frank Lloyd Wright, one of the important architects of the 20th century. According to the Frank Lloyd Wright Building Conservancy, “In 1991, the AIA [The American Institute of Architects] named Wright the greatest American architect of all time”[1]. Besides not being his most famous work, the Willits House express Wright’s interest in the traditional Japanese architecture and in the simple way of living.

Wright’s interest in Japanese art started on the late 1880s, when he started to work as an art dealer as a side job, selling Japanese woodprint blocks to his clients. In 1905, when he decided to make his first trip outside of America, he decided to visit Japan, spending two months touring natural and historical landmarks. In January of 1917, Wright took a residence in Tokyo to work on projects in Japan. Apart from being designed in 1901, before his first trip to Japan, the Willits House received a lot of influences from the traditional Japanese house style.

Traditional Japanese Style

The Japanese traditional style was an architectural design that took place before the modernization made in the Meiji era (1868-1912), an era that Japan decided that it should modernize its architecture and engineering to become an industrialized country. This style is characterized by its feeling of simplicity and serenity, the attention to details, the use of wood structure and the use of wood and paper panels as walls and doors.


Minka in Kyoto [2]
The traditional Japanese houses are called minka, kominka or ko-minka. These houses are now slowly disappearing[3], partially because they are made of a very flammable material and partially because they aren’t appropriate for the current Japanese lifestyle. Nevertheless, they were very common in the Japan that Wright knew and visited.

Japanese roof frame [4]
To make these houses, the Japanese builders used a carpentry technique that made possible to build a house without the use of nails, with just perfect fits between wood pieces and mooring pieces together. This way of build makes it necessary to have attention to every detail of every piece used in the construction of the house so they attach together strongly.

A minka also utilizes sliding screens that worked as doors and walls. These sliding screens are called fusumashouji or fusuma, for short[5], and they can be used, when open, to turn a space wider or, when closed, to turn a room more private. These fusuma are made of wood and paper. They can be made from a very thin paper, letting light enter the house or the room, or from a very thick paper. Those paper can receiver a pure color or even some artistic painting

Willits house and its relation to Japanese traditional style

The Willits House is a house that Frank Lloyd Wright designed in 1901 for Ward W. Willits. This house received a lot of influence from the Japanese minka that we saw here before. The first characteristic that we see, analyzing the side view of the Willits House, is the white color on the wall and the wood framing the windows, mimicking the serenity found Japanese architecture and the fusuma that works as the door and wall of the minka house. We also can see a large eaves on the top of the building that are common on Japanese traditional architecture.

Floor plan

Dining room [6]
Going inside the house, we see a lot of wood frames working as structural element, as also a way to mimic fusumas, or as way of incorporate glass to make some rooms feels more permeable. Wright also used panels made of wood and glass as doors, using the glass as the Japanese use paper to fill their fusuma. We can also see that the rooms are spacious and very clean, helping to creating the feeling of serenity that are common on traditional Japanese architecture.

Wright was very interested in the Japanese culture and architecture. In this project, he could experiment some ways to incorporate his passion on the american house and in his architecture design. As we saw, this project is inspired in the Japanese minka, but also has adaptations made to work in the american style and way of living, like the use of glass and western wall material, instead of paper. These experiments were futher used on more of Wrights projects, defining part of the Praire House Style and the overall Wright style.

[1] Frank Lloyd Wright Building Conservancy. 2007. “About Frank Lloyd Wright”. Retrieved April 04, 2018 (

[2] Kyoto-Araki Komuten Sukiya-Japan. “Introducing Ko-Minka”. Retrieved April 05, 2018 (

[3] Tsunagu Japan. “Simple yet beautiful: Japan's traditional homes, kominka”. Retrieved April 04, 2018 (

[4] Евгений Арсенюк Pinterest Account. “Japanese roof frame”. Retrieved April 05, 2018 (

[5] Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System. “Fusuma”. Retrieved April 05, 2018 (

[6] Wiki Architecture. “Ward W. Willits House”. Retrieved April 04, 2018 (


Article by HL Architects and Interior Design in Durham

Architecture History: Skyscrapers Of The Past

Humanities incessant fascination with defying gravity is nothing new. It has existed throughout time and man has been in a constant battle with himself in the pursuit of building higher and higher skyscrapers. It has been a non-stop cycle wand this has led to the definition of skyscrapers to be continuously redefined through the passage of time.

Advancement in technology has enabled man to redefine the skyscraper benchmark over and over again. But if you stop for a moment to consider that skyscrapers have existed in form or another throughout history and that it is something that we share with our predecessors.

Let’s take a trip down the memory lane and let’s look at some of the skyscrapers from the history of civilizations.


La Venta Pyramid, La Venta

900 BC | Height: 34m-110ft

Today, if you visit the city of La Venta, located in Tabasco, Mexico, it will seem like any other city. But this is no ordinary city, it was once the capital of the great Olmec civilization and the pyramid of La Venta was truly a wonder of its time. It was the central building of the city that stood in all its might leaving spectators spell bounded.

The most interesting fact is that the pyramid of La Venta was actually a rectangular pyramid with inset corners and stepped sides. This great building was made entirely of clay and such had been its might that it has withstood 2500 years worth of corrosion.


La Danta Temple, El-Mirador

300 BC | Height: 72m-236 ft

If you are asked to sum up the Mayan Empire in a few words, you can safely answer – La Danta Temple.

A stone building constructed with stone-age tools, this iconic temple speaks volumes about the greatness of Mayan Empire. In its glory days, it was the pride of the city of Mirador, towering over the central Acropolis and main city plaza.


Pyramid of the sun, Teotihuacan, Mexico.

100 AD | Height: 71m-233ft

The third skyscraper on the list is another pyramid, which isn’t a surprise as pyramids were the structure of choice in the past.

The Pyramid is situated in the ancient city of Teotihuacán, Mexico and is the 3rd largest pyramid in the world. It is amongst the best tourist attractions in Mexico City, leaving visitors in awe because of its sheer size.

It is a common misconception that the Pyramid of the sun is an Aztec temple. However, this is incorrect as this masterpiece was constructed by the Teotihuacans, which existed at a much earlier time. Unfortunately, not much is known about the Teotihuacans and hence, the purpose for which the Pyramid of the Sun was built has been a subject of a lot of debate.


Step pyramid, Saqqara

2650 BC | Height: 62m-203 ft

Though pyramids have been constructed by civilizations across the globe, however, when it comes to these structures, the country that comes to mind instantly is Egypt. It can be safely said that pyramids are the most famous structures of Egypt and in this regards, let’s take at look at one of the most prestigious pyramid.

Commonly known as Step Pyramid, the Pyramid of Djoser is considered to be the first Egyptian pyramid. It isn’t a surprise that the appearance of this pyramid is quite different from the pyramids built later.

Located in the Saqqara necropolis, the Step pyramid was built during the Third dynasty for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser. It is considered as the earliest large-scale cut stone construction. The pyramid stood 62 meters tall, with a base of 109 m × 125 m and was clad in polished white limestone.

The construction of the step pyramid was a pivotal step in the history of Egypt as it led to the ambitious pyramid construction program that ultimately led to the construction of Great Pyramids at Giza.


Colosseum, Rome

80 AD | Height: 49m-160 ft

Moving on from pyramids, let’s take a look at an architectural wonder that is regarded as one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world – The Colosseum.

It is without a doubt that the Colosseum is the most recognizable classical building in Rome. It was constructed 2,000 years ago and has been subject to a lot of damage over the years. Despite the fact that this structure has been affected by excessive damage like being abandoned, pillaged for building materials, destroyed in numerous earthquakes, this structure has survived the test of time and still stands today.

The actual name of the Colosseum is Flavian amphitheater. However, it became to be known as the Colosseum as it gained immense fame because of the colossal statue of Nero. When it was built, it was the first permanent and the largest amphitheater in the Roman Empire. It measured around 620 by 513 feet (190 by 155 meters) and could accommodate 60,000 seated and 10,000 standing spectators.

The distinctive feature of the Colosseum was that it consisted of a freestanding structure composed of concrete and stone. This was unique as amphitheaters were traditionally dug into the hillsides in order to provide the required support. Furthermore, the structure consisted of around 80 entrances, which means that even when fully packed, all the people inside the Colosseum could easily leave in a matter of minutes.


Lighthouse of Alexandria

280 BC-1323 AD | Height : 137m-450 ft

The Lighthouse of Alexandria, also called the Pharos of Alexandria, is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. It was a ground-breaking technological achievement and become the model for on which all lighthouses have been built ever since.

The lighthouse of Alexandria was constructed in the 3rd century BC and was more than 350 feet high, making it one of the tallest man-made structures for many centuries.

Unfortunately, the lighthouse of Alexandria was damaged significantly during the 14th century when the region was hit by major earthquakes.


Article by HL Architects Durham

Paper Architecture

Paper Architecture

While paper architecture popularly refers to architectural ideas that exist only on paper and have visionary qualities. Today, we will talk about a different type of paper architecture: Architecture that is actually made of paper. Though this idea seems a little absurd at first, Architect Shigeru Ban has proved otherwise.

Shigeru Ban is a Japanese architect and is best known for his experimentation with paper as a building material. He developed a fascination with paper early in his career as he discovered that paper’s structural integrity was much better than assumed. Hence, he started experimenting with paper tubes manufactured for the textile industry as structural columns. He soon realized that this unconventional building material is extremely inexpensive, accessible and can be used in disaster-hit areas to quickly build large quantities of high quality, low-cost shelters.

Ban has always had an inclination towards humanitarian architecture and has dedicated his life towards making design accessible to the most vulnerable of communities. He has been awarded the Pritzker Prize for his innovative use of materials and compassionate approach to architectural design.

Ban’s extensive knowledge of recyclable materials and his ingenuity towards design is reflected in many of his designs. Discussed below are some of his most inspiring projects:

Paper Log Houses – Kobe, Japan, 1995

This modular house was designed in response to the earthquake that jolted Kobe in 1995. The walls of the shelter were made from 106mm diameter, 4mm thick paper tubes and tenting material was used for the roof, while the foundations consisted of donated beer crates filled with sandbags. A waterproof sponge tape backed with adhesive was sandwiched between the paper tubes of the walls to provide insulation.

Each unit occupied a 52 sq.m. space. The area between the units was used as shared community spaces. These units did not only provide shelter from the elements to the climatic refugees but also gave their communities a chance to thrive again. These temporary shelters were easy to dismantle, and the materials easily disposed or recycled. The same design was later used in Turkey after the 1999 earthquake and then in India after the 2005 earthquake.


Paper Concert Hall – L’Aquila, Italy, 2011

This building was gifted to the people of Italy by the Japanese government after an earthquake that occurred on April 6, 2009, in L’Aquila, Italy. The intent was to construct a concert hall that was easy to assemble and durable, for an early recommencement of musical activities in the city.  The building spreads over 700 square meters. The structure is composed of steel, cardboard concrete and clay sacks. The temporary unit houses 230 seats and can be dismantled and moved to a new location.


Cardboard Cathedral – Christchurch, New Zealand, 2013

This cathedral was built after an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 hit the city of Christchurch, New Zealand and irreparably damaged one of Christchurch’s most esteemed landmarks – the iconic 1864 Anglican cathedral. A temporary cathedral was constructed in its place with an expected lifespan of 50 years.

Constructed as a simple A-frame structure, using 98 cardboard tubes of equal length and 8 shipping containers, the cardboard cathedral is deemed as one of the safest buildings in Christchurch. The paper tubes were coated with polyurethane to make them water proof and flame retardant. This cathedral, which has a capacity of 700 people, can be used as an event space and a concert space. The Cardboard Cathedral demonstrated how paper can be used to create meaningful and beautiful spaces as well.

Ban has proved that the use of paper is not limited to creating basic, low-cost shelters but it can also be used to fashion beautiful spaces and create better, more environmentally sound buildings. Paper has the ability to be used as an environmentally friendly and low-cost alternative to traditional building materials

Following in Shigeru Ban’s foot steps we now see a lot of architects and artist experimenting with paper as a building material.


WooJai Lee, designer

WooJai Lee, a designer based in Eindhoven has turned recycled paper into bricks that can be used to build furniture. These Paper Bricks are made from newspaper pulp that has been mixed with glue and pressed into a mould. The paper gives each brick a soft, textile-like surface. Each brick can be cut, drilled and glued in the same way as wood. Holes down the side of each block allow them to be attached together. This innovative piece of furniture was displayed at Dutch Design Week 2016.


papaer bridge

British artist Steve Messam experimented with the structural qualities of paper in 2015, when he installed a weight-bearing foot bridge across a stream, using 20,000 sheets of bright red paper. This temporary installation was perched above a stream in the rural Lake District national park of Cumbria, UK. Two stone-filled cages anchor the structure to the ground on either side of the river, with an additional wooden form to shape the arc of paper. After placing the foundations, each sheet was inserted without adhesives or fixings, ending in a smooth, compact crescent. The bridge uses the mechanics of an arch in compression and highlights paper’s incredible compressive strength. The poppy red bridge stands out as a peculiar element against the natural backdrop of the site.

Watch a Range Rover driving over a Steve Messam bridge made entirely from paper!

Coachella Music Festival in 2015 flaunted a pavilion built using over a tonne of paper pulp.

Coachella Music Festival in 2015 flaunted a pavilion built using over a tonne of paper pulp.

The Ball-Nogues Studio produced an organic, purple and orange pavilion that enveloped the music fans. This Pulp Pavilion was constructed by air blasting the paper pulp on a series of columns covered by twine.

The tall latticed structures were produced by using 2,200 meters of twine woven around the formwork. Then, the process of air blasting was used to cover this material with more than 1 tonne of paper pulp. Once this had dried up, the firm components were bound together to create a structure with a scalloped roof edge.

According to the architects,

“Historically inapplicable to architectural structure and considered disposable, it exhibits unique sculptural capabilities when recycled into pulp“.

It is evident that the potential of paper is vastly underestimated. Not only is it a low cost and environmentally friendly alternative to the traditional building materials, it also has a wide range of applications that are currently being explored and are in the process of discovery.